Keep in Mind When Writing a Manuscript
Japan Surgical Society
All published materials (except for those in the public domain) are subject in principle to copyright protection. The same protection can also apply to content that is publicly available online. Moreover, even highly public content such as clinical guidelines are normally subject to copyright protection. Using such content in a manuscript constitutes either citation or reproduction.
- Citation and reproduction
When it is necessary to refer to past findings in your manuscript, you may do so without the permission of the copyright holder as long as this falls within the range of fair use, the source is specified, and the quoted portion is clearly indicated. This is called citation. On the other hand, the use of a published figures and tables or text that exceeds the range of fair use generally constitutes reproduction. In this case, the permission of the copyright holder (e.g., the publisher or academic association) will be necessary prior to submission for publication. Even when using a figures and tables from one of your own published manuscripts, you need to obtain permission for reproduction in cases where the copyright has been transferred to the publisher or academic association, etc., at the time of publication.
Please note that you should cite the original document when referring to past findings or the use of such content, regardless of the necessity of obtaining permission. In particular, using the text or data of others without citing the original document may be regarded as plagiarism or literary theft.
- Keep in mind when using online sources
Even when using content that is publicly available online, citation or reproduction is necessary. In the case of citation, please note the URL in question along with the access date for the URL in your reference list. As the use of online images also constitutes reproduction, you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holder.